In the April Day Star, I promised to present the textual evidence showing why I changed my mind about the timing of the Two Witnesses described in Revelation 11. I now believe the Two Witnesses begin their work the day after the censer is cast down which is found in Revelation 8:5. (In the past, I believed the Two Witnesses began to work prior to the casting down of the censer.) For readers who have not read Part I, the following synopsis is presented for clarification and review:
1. Contrary to the opinion of many Bible teachers, I do not believe the Two Witnesses are two people. Instead, I believe John used the literary vehicle of personification to describe the work of the Two Witnesses. The Lord will use the Two Witnesses as two agents of truth which will testify to the people of Earth during the Great Tribulation. In Old Testament times, the agent of truth (the candlestick in Zechariah 4) was the nation of Israel. (Matthew 5:14; Acts 13:47)
The agents of truth in New Testament times were the seven churches (the seven candlesticks) of Revelation. (Chapters 2 and 3) Both Israel and the seven churches failed to accomplish the task the Lord gave them. The two olive trees and the golden oil (presented in Zechariah 4) represent the Holy Spirit and His work of sustaining Gods truth throughout the Earth. (Zechariah 4:6) For these and other reasons, I believe the Two Witnesses represent the Bible and the Holy Spirit.
These final agents of truth will unfailingly accomplish the Lords final worldwide work. When their work is complete, the beast from the abyss will terminate (or kill) the influence of the Bible and the Holy Spirit. (Revelation 11:7)
2. The Two Witnesses will empower Gods 144,000 servant prophets. His servants will proclaim Bible truth with Holy Spirit power and authority during the Great Tribulation. However, these human "arms," "legs" and "mouthpieces" of the Two Witnesses will not operate in a vacuum. The devil will have thousands of false prophets claiming they speak for God and will deceive billions of people. (Matthew 7:20,21)
3. The conceptual foundation for the illustration of the Two Witnesses during the Great Tribulation is the Old Testament requirement that a person could not be condemned to death on the testimony of one witness alone. (Deuteronomy 19:15; Matthew 26:60) This is a very interesting point, for one of the 144,000 will present the gospel to every person during the Great Tribulation. The ramification for God using two witnesses is important to understand. He will not condemn any person to death for rejecting the testimony of His messengers (the 144,000). However, God will condemn a person to death for rejecting the testimony of His Word and the Holy Spirits influence.
Think about it, how can God save a person who refuses to love the truth (2 Thessalonians 2:10) and ignores the promptings of the Holy Spirit? (Matthew 12:31) During the Great Tribulation, Gods servants will powerfully present Bible truth (specifically, the terms and conditions of salvation) to the worlds inhabitants. The 144,000 will be to the Second Coming what John the Baptist was to the first appearing of the Messiah. (Malachi 4:5; Matthew 11:14)
God will confirm and validate the work of the 144,000 by His Two Witnesses: the Bible and the Holy Spirit. (John 8:13-19) Consider the problem people will face during these very perplexing times. How can a person know for sure if a prophet is from God or from the devil? Jesus said that many false prophets would come in His name and deceive many. (Matthew 24:5,11) How do we identify false prophets? The only way is to compare the prophets testimony with the Bible. Obviously, the Bible serves as a "higher" witness than the prophet either confirming or condemning his speech.
In studying the presence and operation of these Two Witnesses during the Great Tribulation, three issues should be considered:
a. During the past 2,000 years, Satan has successfully established a great deception. The deception is that many gods today have the name, or a derivative of the name, "Jesus Christ." In Bible times, each nation or religion had its own god such as Ra, Marduk, Baal or Venus. Thus, each gods identity was easy to understand and define. However, since Christianity has spread throughout the world during the past 2,000 years, the devil has been able to "create" many false gods using the name "Jesus Christ." How many doctrines today claim to be true and valid in the name of Jesus Christ?
Matthew 7:20,21 proves that false prophets can use the name of "Jesus" (or a derivative) to perform signs, miracles and wonders and yet, Jesus said that He never knew these performers! When someone uses the name of Jesus, or any name alleged to be the true name of Jesus Christ, the "claim" is meaningless and has no merit. An individual should never place confidence in a messenger claiming to speak for God, regardless of the name he or she may use. Instead, any true follower of Christ should be like the Bereans. (Acts 17:11)
Suppose three people appear, each claiming to speak Gods truth and their doctrines do not agree. How could an ordinary person determine which messenger is Gods servant? Here are four choices:
- Determine which messenger is the most talented person.
- Determine which messenger has the most followers.
- Determine which messenger can do the most awesome miracles.
- Compare the testimony of each messenger with the Bible.
Obviously, the last option is the only valid answer. We have to compare the testimony of all messengers with the only authority that God has given man. Fools trust in popularity, talent, signs, wonders and miracles for evidence. (See Exodus 7:11; Luke 11:29.) The only published authority that contains Gods truth is the Bible. There is only one witness on Earth that can provide an accurate, truthful testimony besides the Bible. This witness would never disagree with the Bibles contents. After all, He, the Holy Spirit, was the agent that moved men and women to write the Bible. (2 Peter 1:21)
b. The devil will utilize peak deceptive power during the Great Tribulation. He will send demons in the human forms of Enoch, Elijah, Moses, Mohammed, Buddha and other highly regarded personages among the nations as a spokesperson for God. His purpose in sending these "witnesses" will be to convince the world that he is Almighty God worthy of total submission. The only way to test a messenger who claims to speak for God is the Bible and the Bible alone Sola Scriptura!
c. The Holy Spirit is a distinct, separate member of the Godhead. He is God, just as the Father and Son are God. When a person is baptized according the command of Jesus, he or she must be baptized into the Holy Spirit, just as he is baptized into the Father! (Matthew 28:19) Unfortunately, the doctrine of the trinity is increasingly challenged these days, and the entity of the Holy Spirit is often eliminated or diminished. (Could this be a part of the devils plan to lessen the role of the Holy Spirit before Satan appears claiming to be God?) However, the Holy Spirits glory is not lessened by words or thoughts of men. In fact, the time of His greatest manifestation is just before us during the 1,260 days of the Two Witnesses. The Holy Spirits work is not hard to understand. Notice what Jesus said: "But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come. He will bring glory to me by taking from what is mine and making it known to you. " (John 16:13,14) This verse reveals five points:
- The Holy Spirit guides people into all truth.
- The Holy Spirit is capable of speaking on His own, but does not.
- The Holy Spirit listens to the words of Jesus, then relays the testimony of Jesus to those who have ears to hear.
- The Holy Spirit reveals what is yet to come so that Gods children can be prepared.
- The Holy Spirit brings glory to Jesus by revealing what Jesus says!
John identifies Gods children during the last days as people who obey Gods commandments and hold to the testimony of Jesus. The previous text reveals that the "testimony of Jesus" will come through the Holy Spirit via his 144,000 prophets! (Revelation 12:17; 19:10) God does not give men and women the Bible and require them to extract the truth by intellectual process alone. Instead, God has enabled His Word to be published in almost every language. Then, to make the truth highly visible, He gives the gift of the Holy Spirit to guide the honest in heart! When we consider the global reach of the Two Witnesses during the Great Tribulation, what better agents of truth can there be for nearly six billion people that live on Earth?
This concludes the review. We have considered the identity and work of the Two Witnesses, now let us examine the timing of the Two Witnesses.
A Change of Mind
The following pages show a simple comparison of my previous views and what I now believe. The essential difference between these two views is when the 1,260 day period of the Two Witnesses begins. Previously, I taught that the 144,000 would appear before the censer was cast down (global earthquake).
After continued study, I have now concluded that the Two Witnesses appear after the censer is cast down. The net effect is that the time-period of the bowls (plagues) is now much shorter, and more importantly, the seven trumpets will begin as an overwhelming surprise to everyone on Earth! In both views the 1,260 day period ends about the time of the 7th trumpet.
To make this presentation as simple and interesting as possible, I have placed each "stepping stone" to my new view chronologically to facilitate review and reference:
Anyone who studies the timing of the Two Witnesses is faced with a number of problems. Specifically, when do the 1,260 days begin? Do the Two Witnesses begin their work prior to the seven trumpets or after the censer is cast down? What event marks the beginning of the 1,260 days? Let us begin by reading this text:
Revelation 11:3 "And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they will prophesy for 1,260 days, clothed in sackcloth."
This verse only provides us with the length of time the Two Witnesses will testify.
We know that the Two Witnesses are killed thus their testimony comes to an end at the 1,260th day. Look at this text:
Revelation 11:7 "Now when they have finished their testimony, the beast that comes up from the Abyss will attack them, and overpower and kill them."
This verse reveals two additional clues. First, the beast from the abyss eventually kills the Two Witnesses. Second, the Two Witnesses finish their allotted time of 1,260 days. We know that the beast from the abyss appears during the fifth trumpet (Revelation 9:1-11; Revelation 17:8), so the Two Witnesses have to be killed after the fifth trumpet begins. But, we still do not have enough data to determine if the Two Witnesses begin their work on or before the time the seven trumpets begin.
The following verse offers a clue which may not seem very helpful at first, but consider what it actually says:
Revelation 10:7 "But in the days when the seventh angel is about to sound his trumpet, the mystery of God will be accomplished, just as he announced to his servants the prophets."
I believe this verse contains a direct clue about the end of the 1,260 days and death of the Two Witnesses. In other words, this verse associates the end of the 1,260 days of the Two Witnesses with the 7th trumpet. "The mystery of God" will be completed just before the 7th trumpet sounds. What is the mystery of God and how does this relate to the Two Witnesses?
The mystery of God is the "sealing" or imparting of the righteousness of Christ to sinners. A great distinction exists between the imputing and imparting of Christs righteousness. Christs righteousness has been imputed to people of faith ever since Adam and Eve sinned. (The word "imputed" means a person is to be considered righteous even though he or she is not righteous. Genesis 15:6) However, the imparting of Christs righteousness only occurs when living people are judged during the Great Tribulation.
The imparting of Christs righteousness is a transformation of the human nature, not the human character. Our character is what we make of ourselves. Our nature is our natural predisposition toward rebellion against God. But, our nature will not always rebel against God! He is going to change our nature into one that is opposed to sin! (Hebrews 8:10-13)
The mystery of God is directly related to the sealing of people who are alive. The sealing occurs during a time-period when God tests each living person to see who is worthy to receive eternal life. These living people will judge themselves. Everyone will either stand firm in his faith (and be sealed) or will receive the mark of the beast. Remember, a persons worth is not determined by possessions or abilities, but by faith. (Luke 21:34,35; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Revelation 3:10; 2 Thessalonians 1:4,5)
The following questions and answers may provide a better explanation:
Q. – Why do you call the sealing, "the mystery of God"?
LW. – According to Paul, the mystery of God is "Christ living within." Notice this text: ". . .This is the gospel that you heard and that has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven, and of which I, Paul, have become a servant. . . . I have become its servant by the commission God gave me to present to you the word of God in its fullness the mystery that has been kept hidden for ages and generations, but is now disclosed to the saints. To them God has chosen to make known among the Gentiles the glorious riches of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory." (Colossians 1:23-27)
Q. – How can Christ live within me?
LW. – This is the mystery of God. How can anyone explain the indwelling power of Jesus? (Acts 1:8; 1 Corinthians 4:20) We can recognize it. We can experience it, but who can explain how it happens?
Q. – Doesnt Christ live within me at this time?
LW. – Yes, but Christ has not been sealed within you.
Q. – What do you mean?
LW. – Martin Luther summarized it well. He said of Christians living by faith, "Sin remains but sin doesnt reign." Actually, Paul said it better: "The things I would not do, that I do and the things I would do, I dont do." (Romans 7) Paul recognized that when he did things he did not want to do, it was because sin was living within him and this is precisely the problem. When the saints are finally sealed with Christ within, the nature of sin will be transformed into a nature that opposes sin. Only then will the sealing will be complete.
Q. – Revelation indicates the first individuals to be sealed will be the 144,000 (firstfruits). Will others be sealed throughout the progression of the Great Tribulation or will the rest of mankind be sealed just before the 7th trumpet sounds?
LW. – During the 1,260 days, the testimony of the Two Witnesses will prompt a four-step process:
- Each person will hear the terms and conditions for salvation this will be delivered by the 144,000. (Matthew 24:14)
- As each person hears the gospel, he will make a decision for or against it.
- Each person will be tested to see if his decision is final.
- Those people taking a stand to obey Christ will be sealed after they pass the test of faith. Those who refuse to place their faith in Christ will be left with no choice join with the devil and receive his mark.
So, as the test of faith is administered through the agents of the Bible and the Holy Spirit, the faith of each person must be tested. If their faith remains unmovable, then the mystery of God (sealing) takes place in that person. He or she is sealed with the righteousness of Christ (having a nature opposed to sin) for eternity!
Q. – What does the word "sealed" imply?
LW. – Actually, the word "sealed" is very descriptive of the process. It means that after passing the test of faith, Jesus permanently imparts a new nature within the person. At this time, human beings are naturally attracted to sin and rebellion against God. (Romans 7) However, after someone is sealed, that person will no longer be afflicted with this natural tendency toward sin and rebellion. (Romans 1:17; Hebrews 8:10-13; 1 John 3:2) Being sealed means we will receive natures like Adam and Eve before they sinned natures like the angels of Heaven. Conversely, other people who choose to be marked by the beast will retain their rebellious nature.
Q. – What does this sealing have to do with the Two Witnesses and their 1,260 days?
LW. – Gods purpose for the 1,260 days is singular. As He tests the people of Earth, He will be sure that no group of people or any individual on Earth has an advantage. Gods purpose for this carefully designed test is to determine the people who love Him with all their hearts, minds and souls. The living will judge themselves by the choices they make. Those who choose to serve the God of Heaven will be sealed and receive Christs righteousness and eternal life. The other people who cannot or will not live by faith will receive the mark of the beast.
The parameters for the coming test can be read in Revelations story: God will be sure that everyone on Earth hears the everlasting gospel. (This will be the work of the 144,000.) The gospel mandates us to worship God by obeying His commandments, which include observing His holy day according to the fourth commandment.
Emphasis is placed on the fourth commandment because during the Great Tribulation, the act of worshiping God on the seventh day will be challenged by man-made laws requiring worship on days other than Gods holy day. To make matters even more interesting, the violation of man-made laws will be enforced with severe penalties. In this context, those who love and honor God supremely will be clearly revealed. It will be impossible for them to cooperate with earthly authorities.
(Remember when everyone bowed down to king Nebuchadnezzars image, the three Hebrews were easily detected. Daniel 3. Also see Acts 5:29.) The test of worship fully reveals to whom you give your loyalty.
As presented earlier, I understand one witness to be the Word of God (Bible) and the other to be the Holy Spirit. People who love God will quickly grasp the truth from Scripture on the matter of worship. As the 144,000 present the Word of God to the inhabitants of Earth during the 1,260 days, the Holy Spirit will move powerfully to impress the truth on the hearts of men and women. Religion, custom, tradition and culture will matter little to people who truly love God and His truth and when they pass the test of faith, God will grant them a new nature that will last for eternity. This is the sealing.
Christ takes the 144,000 to Heaven just before the 7th trumpet sounds which means that the 1,260 days of the Two Witnesses end at that time. (I used to understand that the 144,000 were taken to Heaven after the 7th trumpet, at the time of the 1,290th day.) However, please note this text:
Revelation 15:1-5 "I saw in heaven another great and marvelous sign: seven angels with the seven last plagueslast, because with them Gods wrath is completed. And I saw what looked like a sea of glass mixed with fire and, standing beside the sea, those who had been victorious over the beast and his image and over the number of his name. They held harps given them by God and sang the song of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb: Great and marvelous are your deeds, Lord God Almighty. Just and true are your ways, King of the ages. Who will not fear you, O Lord, and bring glory to your name? For you alone are holy. All nations will come and worship before you, for your righteous acts have been revealed. After this I looked and in heaven the temple, that is, the tabernacle of the Testimony, was opened."
This text is part of an apocalyptic sequence that begins in Revelation 14:6. According to the first rule of apocalyptic interpretation, these events must occur in chronological order. (Rule #1 states: "Each apocalyptic prophecy has a beginning and ending point in time and the events within each prophecy occur in the order given.") The order of events in this selection is as follows:
- John sees seven angels responsible for afflicting the seven last plagues.
- John sees a group of people in Heaven who had been victorious over the beast and his image (the throne of God sits above the sea of glass Revelation 4:6).
- This group had been given harps.
- This group sings the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb.
- The temple in Heaven is opened.
- Then, the seven last plagues begin (verses 6 and onward).
As you can see from the chronological order in this text, there is a group of people in Heaven before the seven last plagues begin. In fact, John sees them in Heaven before the temple in Heaven is opened in the 7th trumpet! (Revelation 11:19) The question then arises: Who are these people? When was this group taken to Heaven? Obviously, these are not people from previous generations because these people are victorious over the beast, his mark and his image a last days event.
Notice this text:
Revelation 11:12 "Then they heard a loud voice from heaven saying to them, Come up here. And they went up to heaven in a cloud, while their enemies looked on."
The fulfillment of this verse also occurs just before the 7th trumpet sounds the 7th trumpet sounds in verse 15. This verse describes the 144,000 ascending to Heaven just before the 7th trumpet sounds. In other words, the 144,000 are called up to Heaven just before the events of the 7th trumpet occur. They will be able to observe Christs kingly coronation which happens during the 7th trumpet! (Revelation 11:15)
It is also interesting to note that John hears the 144,000 playing on harps and singing a special song after they are taken to Heaven in Revelation 14. Many readers may be surprised to learn that the great multitude who are redeemed from Earth at the end of the Great Tribulation are not given harps! Rather, they are given palm branches. (Revelation 7:9)
Revelation 14:1-3 "Then I looked, and there before me was the Lamb, standing on Mount Zion, and with him 144,000 who had his name and his Fathers name written on their foreheads. And I heard a sound from heaven like the roar of rushing waters and like a loud peal of thunder. The sound I heard was like that of harpists playing their harps. And they sang a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders. No one could learn the song except the 144,000 who had been redeemed from the earth."
The song of Moses and the song of the Lamb are very special songs. Only individuals who have lived the Moses experience can sing this song. The song of Moses is found in Deuteronomy 32. It is the song of one appointed by God to lead His people. The 144,000 will lead the remnant through the last days. Perhaps the most compelling song is the song of the Lamb which can be found in Psalm 69. This part of the Heavenly song reveals an extraordinary commitment to doing the will of God at any cost. The 144,000 will be exemplary in this experience, just as Jesus perfectly fulfilled the will of His Father. (John 6:38)
So, what does this evidence suggest? Christ will take the 144,000 (including those who were killed in the line of duty) to Heaven at the end of the 1,260 days just before the 7th trumpet. When the 1,260 days expire, their work of proclaiming the gospel will be over and Christ will call these groomsmen up to Heaven to attend the Groom as He prepares to receive His bride.
Now, we come to the question about when the 1,260 days begin prior to the trumpets or after the censer is cast down? Perhaps you have already realized that none of the above texts resolve this question. In the past, I had come to believe that the work of the 144,000 began several weeks or months before the trumpets commenced, which meant the trumpets were less than 1,260 days in length. Now I have concluded that the casting down of the censer marks the beginning of the 1,260 days of the Two Witnesses.
Here is the reason for my conclusion: The 42 months (or 1,260 days Revelation 13:5) of persecution end on the 1,290th day (when the abomination of desolation is set up the universal death decree referenced in Daniel 12:11). This means that this persecution by the first beast in Revelation 13 has to begin 30 days after the Two Witnesses begin their work since both periods of time are 1,260 days in length. The first beast rises to power in response to Gods destructive judgments.
Therefore, the casting down of the censer marks the beginning of the Two Witnesses time-period and the 30 day interval is allotted for the shaking of the inner-court.
1. Remember the following chart:
It appears that the seven last plagues occur very rapidly. Consider how fast the second plague could be implemented: Revelation 16:3 "The second angel poured out his bowl on the sea, and it turned into blood like that of a dead man, and every living thing in the sea died."
How long would it take for every living thing to die if the sea was suddenly contaminated? Six hours? Certainly less than a week. Also consider the next plague and the suffering of those people who participated in the murder of Gods people: "The third angel poured out his bowl on the rivers and springs of water, and they became blood. Then I heard the angel in charge of the waters say: You are just in these judgments, you who are and who were, the Holy One, because you have so judged; for they have shed the blood of your saints and prophets, and you have given them blood to drink as they deserve. " (Revelation 16:4-6)
How much time needs to pass before great suffering from thirst would occur to those who receive this plague? Three days at most. This evidence leads me to conclude that the seven last plagues are very rapid. The destruction that occurs during each plague will be swift and quick and the remaining saints will be blamed for these horrible events. This also explains why the universal death decree is enacted upon the saints. The devil will tell the people of Earth, "Either we kill them (the saints) or their plagues will kill us!"
2. The 30 day time-period (after the casting down of the censer) appears to be the time-period allotted for the measuring or shaking of the "inner-court." (Revelation 11:1) The inner court is a reference to those Christians who have had every opportunity to know the will and plans of God for this hour. They will be sifted and shaken before the "outer court" is measured. The following is my chronological assessment of coming events:
- Today, we are waiting and watching. . . .
- Christs daily intercession on our behalf ends.
- The censer at the Altar of Incense is cast down. Global earthquake, signs on the Earth and in the sky, such as flashes of lightning occur.
- Jesus will speak and say, "No more delay."
- The 144,000 are empowered.
- The servants of God first testify for thirty days to those people who should know the books of Daniel and Revelation.
- The first trumpet sounds hail and fire from Heaven.
- The second trumpet sounds asteroid impact on a sea.
- The third trumpet sounds asteroid impact on a continent.
- The fourth trumpet sounds worldwide volcano eruptions.
- The sudden and impressive establishment of Babylon (world congress of religious leaders).
- Persecution begins for those who refuse to cooperate with their governments and especially those who openly speak in opposition to Babylons authority.
3. One more point needs to be made concerning the commencement of the trumpets as a "overwhelming surprise." Jesus has clearly described the sudden and unexpected commencement of the Great Tribulation. Consider the following parables in Matthew 24 and 25:
Matthew 24:39 ". . . and they knew nothing about what would happen until the flood came and took them all away. That is how it will be at the coming of the Son of Man."
In the factory or in the field
Matthew 24:40 "Two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left."
Thief in the night
Matthew 24:43,44 "But understand this: If the owner of the house had known at what time of night the thief was coming, he would have kept watch and would not have let his house be broken into. So you also must be ready, because the Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him."
Servant caring for Masters possession
Matthew 24:48-50 "But suppose that servant is wicked and says to himself, My master is staying away a long time, and he then begins to beat his fellow servants and to eat and drink with drunkards. The master of that servant will come on a day when he does not expect him and at an hour he is not aware of."
Ten virgins parable
Matthew 25:7-10,13 "Then all the virgins woke up and trimmed their lamps. The foolish ones said to the wise, Give us some of your oil; our lamps are going out. "No, they replied, there may not be enough for both us and you. Instead, go to those who sell oil and buy some for yourselves. But while they were on their way to buy the oil, the bridegroom arrived. The virgins who were ready went in with him to the wedding banquet. And the door was shut. Therefore keep watch, because you do not know the day or the hour. "
After reviewing the timing of the Two Witnesses again and again, I am impressed that the arrival of Day one (the first day of the 1,335 days) will come as a complete surprise an overwhelming shock even to those of us who continue to watch and wait for it. I believe the casting down of the censer (and the subsequent global earthquake, flashes of lightning, thunderings, etc.) will serve as a wake-up call to those who have ears to hear and to those who have been waiting and watching.
At the same time, these physical manifestations will cause the inner court to seriously consider that God has taken matters into His own hands and that the first trumpet is about to sound. For some, these thirty days of waiting will be filled with awesome anticipation.
One final point. This change regarding the timing of the Two Witnesses also changes the alignment of the 18 apocalyptic prophecies a little bit. As I now understand it, Prophecy 10 begins with Revelation 10:1 and ends at Revelation 11:19. (Prophecy 10 used to begin with Revelation 10:1 and end at Revelation 11:14 and Prophecy 11 was Revelation 11:15-19.) This new view combines two prophecies and therefore, reduces the 18 prophecies by one.
However, in times past, I have combined two prophecies within Prophecy 12 because they are closely linked together. By separating them (and technically, they should be) 18 end-time prophecies still remain. Prophecy 11 is now Revelation 12:1-6 and Prophecy 12 is now Revelation 12:7-14:5.
I hope this presentation has been helpful. If the details regarding these changes do not make a lot of sense to you, perhaps the basic idea will be compelling enough to encourage you to closely examine the topic for yourself!